GeneralArterial hypertension (hypertension, hypertensive disease) - the most common chronic disease in adults associated with increased blood pressure. Completely cure this disease is impossible, but you can keep blood pressure under control. Pressurizing one of the three risk factors for coronary heart disease, which can be controlled (in this case the risk implies not only that as pressure rises high, but the time during which there is an increased pressure). Timely control of the pressure to reduce the risk of kidney disease. The sooner you have identified hypertension and started watching her in the dynamics, the lower the risk of developing complications of hypertension in the future.
Causes of hypertensionCauses of hypertension are unknown in 90% of cases. However, some known factors that increase the risk of arterial hypertension:
- Age (the age the walls of large arteries become more rigid, and because of this increased vascular resistance to blood flow, thus increasing the pressure)
- Genetic predisposition;
- The floor (most men suffer hypertension)
- Excessive use of alcohol, salt, obesity, lack of physical activity;
- Excessive exposure to stress;
- Kidney disease;
- Elevated levels of adrenaline in the blood
- Congenital heart defects;
- Regular intake of certain drugs (for example, according to some regular use of oral contraceptives)
- Late toxicosis of pregnancy (a complication of pregnancy).
The symptoms of arterial hypertensionHigh blood pressure may not be accompanied by any symptoms and be detected by chance, when measuring blood pressure. In some cases, it could cause headache, dizziness, flickering before the eyes of flies.
Complications- A stroke;
- A heart attack;
- Heart failure
- Renal failure.
What you can do?Reduce blood pressure and thereby reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in the following ways:
If you suffer from overweight, you should lose it at least in part, because being overweight increases the risk of developing hypertension. Losing weight by 3-5 kg, you will be able to reduce the pressure and the subsequent well control it. Having a lower weight, you can also lower cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar. Normalization of weight is still the most effective drug-free method of pressure control.
Exercise regularly. Regular exercise in the open air, such as walking, jogging, cycling, swimming can prevent high blood pressure. More vigorous physical activity will also help to reduce the weight and reduce the effects of stress on the body. Experts recommend an exercise program for 30 to 60 minutes 3-5 times a week.
Make sure that the food was not very salty. Should limit salt intake to 2.4 mg. This can be achieved, if less salt food, to refuse the use of canned, semi-fast food.
Limit the use of alcohol. It is noticed that people who consume alcohol excessively, often observed hypertension, weight gain, which makes it difficult to control blood pressure. It is best to not drink alcohol at all or limit the use of up to two drinks per day for men and one for women. By the word "beverage" in this case means, for example, 350 ml of beer, wine or 120 ml 100 ml 30-degree liquor.
Eat more potassium, because this way you can also lower your blood pressure. Various sources of potassium are fruits and vegetables. It is desirable to have at least five servings of fruit or vegetable salads, desserts in the day.
It is important to quit smoking, because smoking itself although not cause hypertension, but nevertheless represents a significant risk of coronary heart disease.
This should not be very thick. Observations show that the low-fat diet helps lower blood cholesterol levels and thereby reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. In addition, low-fat diet promotes weight loss.
If your doctor has prescribed any antihypertensive medication taken strictly as the doctor tells you to. Any adverse reactions and adverse effects inform your doctor. Do not stop taking the medication without consulting your doctor.
Doctor regularly. Once you have achieved the desired effect and reduced pressure, it is necessary to constantly monitor it. Unfortunately, there is no clear external signs by which you would be able to understand that the pressure is increased again. Recommended to regularly measure blood pressure at home and visit the doctor at least once a year (for the control and overall effectiveness of the therapy).
What can your doctor?The physician should establish the diagnosis, to conduct additional tests (to check the state of the fundus, kidney function, explore the heart) may appoint antihypertensive therapy, to identify potential complications. Typically, a patient with newly diagnosed hypertension admitted to conduct all necessary research and selection of therapy. Identify different degrees of severity of hypertension (defined as blood pressure numbers, and the presence of various complications).
So, if you are diagnosed with hypertension, you should:
- Be sure to take all the drugs that are prescribed by a doctor (follow the doctor's advice and be sure to read the instructions)
- Take medication at the same time of the day;
- Never skip medications because your blood pressure is normal. It is better to discuss your observations with your doctor.
- Be sure to replenish the supply of drugs before they run out.
Do not stop taking the drug if pressure readings were normal. They become normal just because you are taking medicines.