GeneralAccording to statistics, the death rate from diseases of the cardiovascular system in the world is growing all the time. The study of the causes of these diseases has shown that some of them are associated with infection, others have a hereditary or congenital in nature. However, the largest group of diseases is largely the consequences of bad habits and poor lifestyle. Such diseases to some extent can be prevented.
Due to the nature and cause of heart disease can be divided into five different groups
- Atherosclerotic disease and high blood pressure
In addition, there are some diseases that do not fall into any of the above groups and are worthy of special mention. They are:
- Acute dilatation of the heart, resulting from a weak heart muscle overload large volume of blood, while it is stretched, increasing in size and filled with blood
- Atrial fibrillation (rapid contraction of individual muscle fibers of the atria, with full atrial contraction does not occur), followed by heart failure
- Atrial fibrillation (regular, but accelerated the atria, followed by the ventricles do not have time)
- Paroxysmal tachycardia (periods of very frequent heart rate)
- Coronary thrombosis, which usually occurs as a result of atherosclerosis
- Myocardial infarction (necrosis of the portion of the heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply)
- Heart failure, the end result of any heart disease
CausesCause rheumatic diseases can be both viral and bacterial infection, or a combination thereof. The manifestations of the heart may include endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart), pericarditis (inflammation of the outer lining of the heart), or myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). Unfortunately, each of these pathologies can lead to irreparable damage to the heart.
In case of incorrect or inadequate treatment of infectious agents (streptococci, pneumococci, gonococci, influenza virus) can migrate through the bloodstream and hit the heart valves, causing inflammation. Recovering from an attack of rheumatic valvular heart disease are formed which prevent proper blood flow. Now, in order to pump blood, the heart will have to contract with greater and greater force.
Syphilis itself does not cause damage to the heart. It invades the wall of the aortic arch and aortic valve. In this case, most forms of aortic valve defect in the form of its failure (valve leaflets become weakened, stretched and partially destroyed). So, just thrown out of the heart into the aorta blood is free to flow back into the left ventricle of the heart during diastole (the time between contractions). The left ventricle begins to accumulate a larger volume of blood, the heart muscle is no longer cope with the load, and the ventricle is greatly increased.
Atherosclerosis leads to narrowing of the arteries that leads to worse perfusion of organs including heart muscle. hypertension puts additional strain on the heart. The combination of high stress and a weakened heart muscle can eventually cause damage to the body.
Causes of atherosclerosis and hypertension:
- The natural process of aging
- Sensitivity to tobacco and other toxins
- Long infection
- Anxiety, stress, stressful life
- An excess of cholesterol in the body.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) occurs frequently. In many cases, they do not show themselves and are diagnosed at routine check-ups.
But there are a number of congenital diseases, which have very obvious symptoms.
Congenital Aortic stenosis is too narrow lumen of the aorta, which leads to a strong increase in blood pressure in the upper body and the lower reduced. Complication can be bleeding in the brain.
The presence of any holes in the partitions separating the heart of the cameras, not imperforate foramen ovale (hole in the septum between the atria, which is a norm in the fetus), botallova flow (vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta in utero). Under these evils arterial and mixed venous blood, which means that spreads through the body is not enough oxygen-rich blood. Appears cyanosis of face and limbs, shortness of breath, specific extensions fingertips they become like drumsticks and an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood.
Hypoplasia or aplasia of the pulmonary artery and prevents good aeration of the blood in the lungs.
Functional diseases - various cardiac abnormalities that do not lead to any changes or organic diseases (eg, tachycardia). The main reasons
- Toxins and poisons trapped in the body or produced by the body, perhaps the intestinal tract
- Distraction or vice versa, depression
- Drinking coffee, tea, tobacco, liquor,
- Indigestion, constipation.
Symptoms- Shortness of breath with little exertion or at rest
- Fatigue, low stamina
- Dry cough
- Periods of increased frequency and uneven breathing
- Choking, constricting pain in the chest
- Dull pain and discomfort in the liver or the heart
- Swelling of the feet (especially in the evening)
- At night ill try to lift your upper body (pillow), so it is easier to breathe
- Restless sleep, insomnia
- The weaker the heart, the more swollen feet, there is pain in the chest and back, breathing becomes extremely difficult, as long as people do not lie.
What you can do?If you find yourself these symptoms, you should consult with your doctor. Patients with acute heart failure should always be under the supervision of a therapist, and patients with chronic cardiac disease should undergo periodic inspection. No specific treatment regimen at home there. On the contrary, patients are strongly advised not to self-medicate and consult your doctor.
During treatment, avoid strong psychological and physical stress, do not drink cold water and do not supercool.
What can your doctor?For the diagnosis the doctor will check the basic parameters of vital functions such as body temperature, pulse, respiratory rate and heart rate, blood pressure.
If the vital signs have any deviations, the causes of which may be associated with the heart, the doctor will refer you to an electrocardiogram. It is simple, completely painless study. Also you take a blood test, because damaged heart identifies certain proteins that are found in the blood.
You can assign the stress tests. You will be connected to the device, removes the ECG, and you'll go on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike. Such tests are necessary because some signs of heart disease do not manifest themselves until the heart is not subjected to any load.
You may need an X-ray angiography for the detection of vascular thrombosis and insufficient blood supply to organs.
Based on the diagnosis you will be assigned to appropriate therapy. Treatment of heart disease usually lasts for years or even a lifetime. This is why you need regular doctor checkups and correction of treatment.
In more severe or acute situations may require more radical procedures such as the implantation of an electronic pacemaker or bypass surgery.
If necessary, your doctor may refer you to a psychologist. After a heart attack, depression often occurs.
Also you can recommend an appropriate rehabilitation program. These days, many hospitals offer such programs for survivors of myocardial infarction and other serious diseases. They include special exercises, which are conducted under the supervision of a physician, as well as constant monitoring of the heart.
Preventative measuresPreventing many congenital diseases is to comply with the future mother of the daily routine, diet, avoiding harmful habits, regular visits to the gynecologist during pregnancy.
For the prevention of rheumatic diseases should be completely finish the cure that might arise infectious diseases. If you are prescribed a course of antibiotics lasting 7-10 days, go through it completely, even if you feel better on the third or fourth day of treatment. Otherwise, the infection remains in the body can cause the development of heart disease.
Keep track of the health of children, especially when it comes to infections of the upper respiratory tract and throat. If this infection is left untreated or treated illiterate (such as wrong to take antibiotics), then they can lead to heart disease.
The only way to prevent syphilitic heart disease is to prevent infection. Do not let the frequent change of sexual partners, use of barrier methods of contraception.
Prevention of atherosclerosis and hypertension is diet, moderation in eating and regular exercise. The older you get, the more important to follow these tips.
Give up bad habits, unhealthy lifestyle, and promiscuity as quickly as possible. Sense of happiness, satisfaction and peace of mind are essential to maintain a healthy heart and strong.