Angina occurs when a particular portion of the heart muscle with blood is not delivered necessary quantity of oxygen, which leads to damage or necrosis of the weakening area. Although anginas usually develop suddenly, heart damage may develop gradually over several years.
Causes of anginas
Most anginas are caused by blockage or spasm of the coronary arteries (blood vessels that supply the heart). Typically occluded artery atherosclerosis when fat metabolites accumulate on the inner wall of arteries and form plaque. Anginas can also be the result of a blood clot stuck in narrow coronary arteries. Most clots formed where an artery is narrowed by atherosclerotic plaque.
The feeling of pressure and burning pain in the chest, sometimes accompanied by sweating, nausea or vomiting. The pain extends from the chest to the lower jaw, giving the abdomen, left hand and left shoulder. There may be a feeling of tightness in the chest. Breathing becomes sparse, with intervals of more than two seconds.
Arrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, atrial-ventricular block. Congestive heart failure (a condition in which the heart pump function inefficiency leads to accumulation of fluid in the lungs). Cardiogenic shock (a form of shock that occurs secondary to the decrease in the pumping function of the heart). Widespread, extensive myocardial infarction (increase in the affected tissue of the heart). Pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium, a two-layer of connective tissue sac that covers and protects the heart). Pulmonary embolism (PE). Complications associated with treatment (eg, thrombolytic therapy increases the risk of bleeding during treatment).
What you can do?
Put the antianginal agent under the tongue, as you instructed to do so by your doctor. Eyewitness severe angina should call an ambulance or transport the patient to the nearest hospital.
What can a doctor?
Angina doctor may hospitalize the patient for examination and intensive care. Conduct electrocardiogram (ECG), to assess the levels of various substances in the blood to confirm the diagnosis. Assign a strong painkillers and appropriate medication. Assign additional oxygen therapy. If the patient is taken to the hospital no later than six hours after the attack, the doctor may prescribe thrombolytics to dissolve a blood clot in the arteries. early treatment in case of complications. Refer the patient to a specialist for angioplasty (dilating the narrowed artery with a tiny balloon) or aorto-coronary bypass surgery (surgery in which the blood supply to create a shortcut of the heart). Refer the patient to a rehabilitation center. Assign antianginal or other means for independent reception at home.
Prevention of angina
Quit smoking. Take action to lower blood pressure, lower elevated cholesterol level in blood. Strive to maintain a healthy weight, do not pass up the daily physical activity.