Acquired heart disease – is a morphological change of heart valve that has developed over the life of the patient as a result of disease or traumatic injury of the heart. The heart consists of four chambers: the left atrium and ventricle, which is located between the mitral valve and the right atrium and ventricle, which is located between the tricuspid valve. At the entrance to the aorta and the pulmonary artery is accordingly the aortic valve and the pulmonary artery. The most common malformations mitral valve (50-70%), slightly less aortic (8-27%). Isolated tricuspid valve defects are rare, less than 1% of cases, but in combination with other malformations tricuspid valve failure occurs in half of the patients.
The causes of heart diseases
The cause of valve lesions are most often rheumatism, atherosclerosis, infectious endocarditis. Much less common heart defects due to syphilitic lesions, trauma, diffuse connective tissue disease (ankylosing spondylitis, systemic scleroderma, dermatomyositis) or degenerative changes in the valves with the inclusion of salts of lime. In the wings of valves develops an inflammatory process resulting in damage, destruction and scar deformity. Impaired function of the heart valves work with the increased load. Develops hypertrophy (thickening) of the heart. In the future, the heart cavity expands, falls contractile force of the heart muscle, there are signs of heart failure.
Symptoms depend on the affected valve or a combination of the affected valves. As general hemodynamics release compensated, and decompensated Subcompensated vices.
The patient may bother palpitations, shortness of breath, edema, and other manifestations of heart failure.
Diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases carries a cardiologist on the basis of clinical symptoms, auscultation of the heart and other research methods:
– Electrocardiography (ECG)
– Echocardiography (echocardiogram)
– Chest x-ray.
Cardiac catheterization and angiography performed only when indicated for surgical treatment of defects.
Treatment of acquired heart disease
Conservative treatment is aimed at preventing relapses and complications of underlying disease, correction of cardiac arrhythmias, prevention and treatment of heart failure.
Primary surgical treatment.