Tests on blood sugar much: taking blood from a vein of the finger, with and without load, and even a completely incomprehensible "beast", as glycated hemoglobin. Who needs what and how to understand the results?
The answers an endocrinologistOn what grounds can determine the rise in blood sugar levels?
Classic symptom - constant thirst. Also alarming increase in the amount of urine (due to the appearance of glucose in it), an endless dry mouth, itchy skin and mucous membranes (usually late), weakness, fatigue, boils. If you notice at least one symptom, and especially their combination - better than guessing, and see a doctor. In the morning on an empty stomach or just take a blood test from a finger on the sugar.
MYSTERY OF FIVE MILLION
Officially registered more than 2.6 million people with diabetes, and 90% of them are diabetes type 2. According to the control and epidemiological studies, the number of even reach 8 million. The most annoying thing - two-thirds of people with diabetes (more than 5 million people) are unaware of their problem.
In diabetes type 2 in half of patients have no symptoms characteristic. So you need to check your blood sugar regularly to everyone?
Yes. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that after 40 years be tested every 3 years. If you are at risk (overweight, have family members with diabetes), then yearly. This allows you to not run the disease and do not bring to complications.
What are the indicators of blood sugar are the norm?
If you are taking blood from a finger (on an empty stomach)
3,3-5,5 mmol/L - the norm, regardless of age;
5.5-6.0 mmol/L - pre-diabetes, an intermediate state. It is also called impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
6.1 mmol/L or greater - diabetes.
If the blood was taken from a vein (also fasting), the rate of about 12% higher - up to 6.1 mmol/L (diabetes - if it is above 7.0 mmol/L).
What analysis more precise - express or laboratory?
A number of medical centers blood sugar perform rapid method (glucometer). In addition, blood glucose meter is very convenient to check your blood sugar at home. But the results of proximate analysis are considered as preliminary, they are less accurate than those performed on laboratory equipment. Therefore, when there is a fault to retake analysis in the laboratory (usually via the venous blood).
Is it always accurate are the results?
Yes. If you have severe symptoms of diabetes, you need a single check. If no symptoms, the diagnosis of "diabetes" if the 2 times (on different days) revealed a higher than normal blood sugar.
I can not believe the diagnosis. Is there a way to update it?
There is another test which is carried out in some cases for the diagnosis of diabetes: sample with the "glucose tolerance". Determine the level of fasting blood sugar, and then you drink 75 grams of glucose syrup and 2 hours again donating blood sugar and check the result
Up to 7.8 mmol/L - the norm;
7,8-11,00 mmol/L - pre-diabetes;
Above 11.1 mmol/L - mellitus.
Before the test, you can eat as usual. Within 2 hours between the first and second analyzes can not eat, smoke, drink, undesirable walk (exercise reduces sugar) or, conversely, sleep and lie in bed - all of which can distort the results.
LESS WEIGHT - STOP DIABETES!
To what level to reduce weight, tells the approximate formula: height (cm) - 100 kg. Experience shows that to improve the well-being sufficient to reduce the weight by 10-15%.
A more accurate formula:
Body Mass Index (BMI) = body weight (kg): height squared (m2).
18.5-24.9 - the norm;
25.0 29.9 - overweight (grade 1 obesity)
30,0-34,9 - 2nd degree of obesity, the risk of diabetes
35,0-44,9 - 3rd degree, the risk of diabetes.
What affects the result of the analysis?
Any examination of sugar should be made on the background of normal power supply. No need to comply with any special diet, give up sweets, however, and after a roaring party in the morning to go to the laboratory is not necessary. You should not pass tests and on the background of any acute conditions, whether it is a cold, trauma or myocardial infarction. When pregnancy diagnostic criteria also will be different.
Why do I need an analysis on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)?
Index HbA1c reflects the average blood sugar level over the past 2-3 months. For the diagnosis of diabetes today, this analysis is not used due to problems with standardization of techniques. The value of HbA1c may affect kidney, blood lipid levels, the presence of abnormal hemoglobin, etc. etc. Increased level of glycated hemoglobin can mean not only diabetes and improve glucose tolerance, but also, for example, iron deficiency anemia.
But the HbA1c test is necessary for those who have diabetes already discovered. It is recommended to hand over immediately after diagnosis, and then retake every 3-4 months (blood from a vein on an empty stomach). It will be some kind of assessment of how you control the level of sugar in the blood. By the way, the result depends on the method used, so to track the changes of hemoglobin, you need to know what method was used in the laboratory.
What should I do if I was diagnosed pre-diabetes?
Pre-diabetes - this is the beginning of carbohydrate metabolism, signal that you have entered the danger zone. It is necessary, first, to quickly get rid of excess weight (as a rule, it is in these patients), and secondly, to attend to lower blood sugar. A little bit more - and you'll be late.
Limit yourself to food to 1500-1800 calories a day (depending on the initial weight and diet), give up baking, sweets, cakes, cook for a couple, cook, bake, do not use oil. You can lose weight, just replacing an equal amount of hot dogs cooked meat or chicken, mayonnaise and sour cream in a salad fat - yogurt or low-fat yogurt with sour cream, and instead of putting oil on bread cucumber or tomato. Eat 5-6 times a day. Very useful advice about nutrition with a nutritionist, an endocrinologist. Connect daily fitness: swimming, water aerobics, pilates...