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Anaphylactic Shock

General

Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening patient's pathological condition that develops when the body contact with certain foreign substances (antigens). Anaphylaxis refers to an immediate type allergic reactions, the compound in which the antigen causes the release of the antibodies into the bloodstream of a number of biologically active substances (histamine, serotonin). These substances cause increased permeability of blood vessels, impaired blood circulation in small blood vessels spasm of the muscles of internal organs and a variety of other disorders. Blood accumulates in the periphery, blood pressure falls, the internal organs and the brain does not get enough oxygen, which is the main cause of loss of consciousness.
It should be understood that such a reaction of the body to foreign substances is inadequate, hyperergic (ie superstrong). The severity of a person due to the failure of the body's immunological response.

Causes anaphylactic shock

The most common causes of anaphylaxis are insect bites and the introduction of drugs (such as penicillin, sulfonamides, serums, vaccines, etc.). Less commonly, there are similar reactions to foods (chocolate, peanuts, oranges, mangoes, various kinds of fish), inhalation of dust or pollen allergens.

The symptoms of anaphylactic shock

The clinical picture of anaphylactic shock is characterized by fast development of symptoms to appear after a few seconds or minutes after contact with an allergen.

- Inhibition of consciousness;
- Drop in blood pressure;
- Seizures;
- Involuntary urination.

In most patients, the disease begins with the appearance of a sense of heat, redness of the skin, the fear of death, headache, pain behind the breastbone. Blood pressure drops sharply, the pulse becomes thready.

The options anaphylactic shock with a primary lesion:

- The skin with increasing pruritus, erythema, urticaria, and the advent of widespread angioneurotic edema;
- Nervous system (cerebral version) with the development of severe headache, nausea, increased tactile sensitivity, seizures with involuntary defecation and urination, loss of consciousness;
- Respiratory (asthma variant) with a dominant suffocation due to edema of the mucosa and smooth muscle spasm of the upper respiratory tract;
- Heart (cardiogenic) with the development pattern of acute myocarditis or myocardial infarction.

The diagnosis is usually made on clinical.

What you can do (first aid in anaphylactic shock)

At the slightest suspicion on the development of anaphylactic shock should immediately call an ambulance. Before the arrival of the doctor should try to stop the further flow of the allergen into the body. If anaphylactic shock suffered as a result of an insect bite, you should apply a tourniquet above the bite. So you stop delivery of the allergen in the bloodstream. Try to give the victim a horizontal position on the back with his head tilted to one side, to prevent the tongue due to asphyxia or aspiration of vomit, then release the neck, chest, abdomen, provide a flow of oxygen.

What can a doctor

The first actions of the doctor will also focus on preventing further of allergen in the bloodstream: above the injection or sting or burn impose cut away with a solution of epinephrine (adrenaline). Provide fresh air, give oxygen to breathe oxygen from air is introduced antiallergics. Further treatment of anaphylactic shock is aimed at the normalization of the cardiovascular and respiratory activity, decrease vascular permeability and prevention of late complications in the internal organs.

Prevention

Predict the appearance of anaphylactic shock in most cases impossible. But you should pay attention to the manifestation of an allergy to a substance (drug, food, etc.) and later try to avoid the re-introduction of this substance into the body. Patients who had previously undergone anaphylactic shock, have to have a card stating their allergen.

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