Proteins, fats and carbohydrates every day we get from food, and they are vital to us. These substances in a given amount contains almost any food and are called macronutrients. And why do we need them?
Proteins - building blocks for all body cells. They are composed of amino acids, which are divided into essential and nonessential. Interchangeable can be synthesized in humans only essential to reach a food composition. Proteins are necessary for growth, development, and in general for any physiological process; thus, they are absolutely safe in terms of possible accumulation of excess weight. The sources of protein are meat, fish, dairy products and legumes.
Fats - are made up of fatty acids, which are divided into saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. Today at all on hearing beneficial omega-3 and omega-6 acids, belonging to the group of polyunsaturated and can lower cholesterol. It is also necessary for the absorption of fats, vitamins, synthesis of a number of hormones, the normal operation of many systems of the body. They are contained in both animal food (meat, fish, dairy products) and plant (nuts, seeds, vegetable oil) origin. Excessive consumption of fat - a way to lose the harmony.
Carbohydrates - the main source of energy. They can be simple (glucose, sucrose, etc.) and complex (cellulose, glycogen). Splitting of carbohydrates gives the body energy, the unspent portion of which can be converted into body fat. The main sources of carbohydrates - fruits, vegetables, cereals and sweets.
The diet of an adult to maintain its health and permanent weight gain there should be a certain ratio of these nutrients. Thus, our daily menu should contain:
Once in the digestive system, proteins, fats and carbohydrates are exposed cleavage with release of energy necessary for vital processes. The resulting energy is measured in units - kilocalories (kcal), which, for brevity, often referred to as calories.
Energy value of macronutrients varies. 1 gram of carbohydrate and protein is cleaved to release 4 kcal, 1 gram of fat - 9 kcal.
Caloric intake and the ratio of macronutrients for weight loss
Weight person depends on how many calories enters the body, and how much is consumed. If these amounts are approximately equal, the mass remains stable. If it receives more calories than consumed energy postponed "in reserve" in the form of fat.
Accordingly, to reduce weight, it is necessary to spend more calories than is consumed with food.
To calculate daily calorie your diet and calculate the necessary amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, using a few simple formulas. Try to make the calculations for yourself using these formulas and examples.
1. First you need to calculate your basal metabolism.
For women: 655 + (9,6 x weight in kg) + (height x 1,8 cm) - (4,7 x age);
For men: 66 + (13.7 x weight in kg) + (5 x height in cm) - (6.76 x age).
For example, take a woman 30 years Height 165 cm and weight 65 kg.
Its main exchange will be equal to: 655 + (9.6 x 65) + (1.8 x 165) - (4.7 x 30) = 655 + 624 + 297 - 141 = 1435 kcal/day.
2. Next you need to determine your level of activity, as measured by the coefficient of activity:
- Inactive (complete absence or rare sports activity) - 1.2;
- Sedentary (light load 1-3 times a week) - 1,375;
- Medium (load average 3-5 days a week) - 1.55;
- Very active (full load 6-7 days a week) - 1,725;
- Hyperactive (very high physical activity and physical work 7 days a week) - 1.9.
For example, our woman working in the office, mostly sedentary work, to which she gets in transport. However, it is housekeeping, she loves to go shopping and sometimes wanders into a fitness club. So, its activity coefficient - 1.375.
3. Now you need to determine daily intake of calories by the formula:
The main metabolic activity coefficient x.
In our example, it is 1435 kcal/day x 1.375 = 1973 kcal/day.
4. By subtracting from the resulting figure of 500 kcal, we get the amount of calories that we need to consume to lose weight.
5. In order not to drive themselves in such rigid framework, calculate the so-called "corridor calories" by the formulas:
Energy intake for weight loss - 250 = lower limit
Kalorazh slimming +100 = upper limit.
That is, our women to lose weight, you need to keep your calorie daily diet within the 1223 - 1573 kcal/day.
In these calculations, it is important to remember that the daily calorie intake for women should not be lower than 1200 kcal. Calories less than this figure have a negative impact on health. 1200 calories a day - it is also very small, so it is better to consume more calories. Keeping within the corridor of calories, you will still lose weight.
To do this, go back to their energy capacity and percentage in the daily diet - 10-25% protein, 20-35% fat and 45-65% carbohydrates. And calculate what proportion they should take, given the upper and lower limit of the corridor calories.
For our example, it will have the following meanings:
So, to lose weight, a woman from the example should be consumed in a day 30.5 - 98 g protein, 27 - 61 grams of fat and 137.5 - 256 grams of carbohydrates.
Of course, this is a rough estimate, and these amounts are not necessarily comply with the accuracy of a tenth of a unit.
Another obstacle on the road to weight loss
We hope you have successfully reached the end of the calculations, and now in front of you is a piece of the figures, which you will need to make your diet. And how to be? Here begins the next portion of the complexities. In light of almost no foods which comprise only proteins, but only fats or carbohydrates - all products are mixed with a predominance of certain compounds. So 100 grams of meat is not equivalent to 100 grams of protein. And try to lead your diet in perfect match with the results of your arithmetic exercises you do not succeed.
The daily diet of a person must be present all the major macronutrients. Refusal or severely restricting some of them have a negative impact on your health and well-being. On the other hand, every person is different, and the need for those or other substances may also differ.
Counting the number of proteins, fats and carbohydrates - only one of many ways to achieve harmony and health. However, while one of the most difficult to execute. So it is not necessarily strictly follow it. You will achieve no less results if just eat varied, trying to eat less animal fat and sweets. And freed from the complex calculations time you can spend more usefully: first - on a visit to the gym, and then - to update the wardrobe…